There are two main divisions in the language family, into which the languages of
The languages of Here fall into three groups:
Over the centuries, with the decline of the Glorious Empire and the increasing dominance of the descendants of the ancient Minoritish people,
The most important of the Religious languages is
The most important Marine group is that of the
The languages of There mostly belong to the
The consonant inventory of Shapshiruckish is quite small, with only thirteen items, and one common cluster:
however, the most generally accepted reconstruction is that of
DiphthongsThree diphthongs are reconstructed: the falling
Common to all these reconstructions is the absence of any nasal consonants, a cause of slight concern, but there is allophonic evidence for the presence of phonetic nasals.
It is probable that, at least in some environments, the realisation of
The two rounded back vowels
*bup- sit, Proto-RM *mup-, Proto-Martial *bupu-.
*dub- fate, Proto-RM *nub-, Proto-Martial *dubu-.
*god- place, Proto-RM *ŋad-, Proto-Martial *gōda-,
However, it is also likely that the voiced stops had some nasal character, which was strengthened before back vowels in these cases.
Stress is on the first syllable.
It would be nice if there was some more.
Schwarzweiss and Pre-Shapshiruckish
The nasals become oralised, retaining only allophonic prenasalisation, creating:
The palatals are unstable, undergoing the following changes:
*/dʲ/ merges with */ɟ/ to form
*/pʲ/ merges with */c/ to form
He is less certain about what happens to */tʲ/. It possibly also merges into */c/.
*/bʲ/ > */bʒ/ > */pʃ/ to form
|(kʃ >) f||ʧ||h|
His pre-Shapshiruckish vowel system is the seven vowels below and two, rising, dipthongs */ai, oi/:
*/o/ > */u/, dragging */oi/ > */ui/ and */u/ > */ɯ/
*/e/ > */iə/, making the reconstructed vowel system above.
Words, or at least roots, have a strong tendency to contain open syllables initially and medially, although closed syllables are the rule finally. But many common derivational suffixes such as
Parts of Speech
Henceforth, the use of asterisks to denote reconstructed forms will be suppressed, except where relevant, or in non-Shapshiruckish examples, to avoid clutter.
The nominal paradigm is illustrated with
|Plural / Totative Acc.|
Shapshiruckish nouns fall into one of ten classes, each of which has a number and a name:
Class I, Humane: Most nouns which are people ( sog girl, dorod spy) or parts of people ( gobic hand, cuirsaba human nipple) are in this class. Also included are some charismatic megafauna ( cwbßi bear, tetet monkey), words derived from other words in this class ( rigobic right (to sth.)-- a common pattern in all classes) and some sporadics ( pegßuiⅠwc boat). Class II, Vital: Most nouns denoting non-human life, that are not noxious, liquid or slimy: Predictably, the names of animals ( puiß dog, gop gull, gicrib whale) and plants ( śapgwt oak) and parts thereof ( śo eye, dut skin, pur bark, gwt leaf). Most class II nouns for animal parts straddle classes I and II and can be used to refer to either human or animal parts, but not all of them. The Class II counterpart to cuirsaba, for example, is cuirsa udder. Class III, Maculo-Viral: Organic liquids and oozes ( Ⅲarßet blood, potaiⅡ beer, dotoroda suet), noxious excrescences ( ⅠaⅢ shit, apapur scab, darid grease), unclean body parts ( ßotaida anus, rotseg cunt), most internal organs ( dotoro kidney, baⅡas liver, Ⅰosdair bone), loathsome animals ( codiraic louse, gagid slug, snail, pⅠt insect, bug), fearsome, useless or noxious living or quasi-living things ( apaⅠodo weed, dorotseg whore, Ⅱuita smoke) or flowing, granular (possibly even pleasant) matter ( pir salt, Ⅰuiśśuśieb corn, maize, peśuś sand). Class IV, Dynamic: Meteorological phenomena ( sop moon, tit cloud, rat star), periods of time ( popup a period of time, dietaßdoga morning, taßdoga day), feelings ( sedwp joy, pogdicuśu anger, porśor grief), things which flow ( pigasig river, bipⅢer metal, doc tear, sap) and some miscellaneous 'animates' ( gapśa folk, gens, apareśⅠ fist, cic song) Class V, Platic: Landforms ( rwtsu hill, cabodid lake, sea), things stretched out ( raitcws drum, suip animal hide), long things ( Ⅲutor (perimeter) wall, ciruies ditch, suicairßie path) Class VI, Locative: Only a very few nouns have a citation form in Class VI -- like classes VII, IX and, to a lesser extent, IV and VIII, nouns are put into it through derivational processes. Those which do have one tend to be locations, but smaller than those in Class V( ripud edge, gareb house). Class VII, Instrument: As well as derivational use, this class includes nouns which are frankly tools or instruments, the names of which are usually derived from roots in other classes ( bwrsacws ball, apalwpsus flute, apapires flute) Class VIII, Abstract: Abstracta generally ( śabog honour, duir lack, dub fate, dieśdoga rule, regulation, tieśo forgetfulness, pudeta purpose, reason) Class IX, Patientive: No Class IX nouns are found in citation form at all. It is a derivational category and verbs nominalised through the addition of u-for the purpose of e.g.passivising sentences ( q.v.) are the only members. Class X, Miscellaneous: Things which do not fit well into the other classes ( aⅢu good luck, rugws light, piⅡ way). Also some heavenly or divine beings ( śesuśi god, rapśiⅢ angel, paraiso holy thing) Mostly on account of it also being a repository for these preternatural and supernatural beings, Class X nouns may sometimes be considered to be 'Class 0' nouns, especially for purposes of animacy et al.
Verbs (incl. Big Adjectives)
śirruc to speak
They are formed through the simple addition of a class-marking ending to a number-marking stem. These are:
yielding, bearing in mind that only Classes I, II, VII, IX and X form duals, and that Class III nouns do not even form plurals, the combined forms:
If a little adjective is also modifying the noun, this is cliticised onto the postnoun and hyphenated, and so the woman above may happen to be a
Postnouns are the chief locus for marking class information grammatically, however the classes are also commonly distinguished by the use of different copula-verbs.
The reconstructed numeral system is tedious, and it is doubtful, whatever reality we can, in the end, ascribe to it, whether it survived much once people started actually having to use the larger numbers (where 'larger' means 'greater than 20') with any sort of regularity. The large number of differing systems in its descendant languages nevertheless impels us to reconstruct something like it.
The main annoyance is that Shapshiruckish forms larger numbers by coordinating together small numbers in the "three-and-twenty" format. This does not sound so bad until it is remembered that Shapshiruckish only has basic terms for the numbers 1-4 and 10, and that such coordinations are formed by means of numerals and that any numeral, once formed, is a valid coordinator: 'x y n' denoting 'x and also n-1 of y'!
The result is a system that is criticised by
In any case, the numbers 1 - 10 go on firm ground:
Where it is clear that 1-4 and 6-9 form pairs, 6-9 derived from 1-4, possibly by the replacement of the meaningless (or bleached?)
The numerals up to fifteen are then relatively straightforward:
In the numbers 16-19, following on from 15, the unit of account remains multiples of
Which can be interpreted: [1,5]⊗4, [2,5]⊗4, ... .
Be careful not to interpret this as implying,
At which point, the game is up. Integer multiples of 10, (10n), have special names; for numbers of the value (not numerals of the form) (10n)+m, for m between 1 and 4, the form is, translated algebraically, 10(n-1)⊕m; for m = 5, it is 5⊗(2n+1), and for m between 6 and 9, the form is [10-m,5]⊗(2n+1)
If you follow that, 31 - 40 should be obvious:
And 50 is
Their use is quite simple; numerals are never used alone, and only modify nouns. They are placed between the noun they modify and its postnoun, so:
Pśiu raißbu epśe pogdegai!
I cut off a nose!
Pśiu raißbu bwśer-Ⅲigobic-daicas siepśe pogdegai!
I cut off 37 noses!
There are special forms for the first five ordinals, which act like little adjectives:
Pipu rorwbu eⅢa-godpot puituig!
You, take the second feather!
For higher ordinals, mark the noun with the partitive, and
Pśiu raißbup bwśer-Ⅲigobic-daicas epśe pogdegai!
I cut off the 37th nose!
He is working.
Except for big adjectives, which by default are perfective:
He is (a) strong (one).
There are two forms of the copula in Shapshiruckish: the
DⅠdu corśaißu epśe.
He is the lord (for now).
DⅠdu corśaißu epśe pas.
He is the lord indeed!
There are six different verbs used to form verb-copulas, depending on noun class:
|Classes I, VII, VIII and X:|
|Classes VI and IX:|
DⅠdu gicribu eⅢai ratip
It is really a whale!
DⅠdu lubaidu ecu gißgiß
Certainly, it is night.
In cases where nouns of two different classes are being copulated, the lowest number -- and so notionally most animate -- class is used:
Ⅰairsiru cuiⅢai Ⅰicßieu ecu ratip.
This flower is edible (
The verb-copula is also the form used when the verb is complex,
DⅠdu corśaißu epśe pasgai.
He was the lord (at the time).
No sense of permanence is necessarily implied here, even though
Recall that big adjectives are perfective by default, since they describe a state of affairs more or less complete in itself, but that regular verbs describe a continuing action. In order to make them
Pśitusi ecu pudu Ⅰacib to.
Skulls no longer weep.
Dynamicised Big Adjectives
But suppose that we should wish to describe a continuing action using big adjectives. In order to do this, it is necessary to nominalise the big adjective and cast it into Class IV -- that is, to
DⅠdu bibⅠubu ero.
He is being strong (for now).
Gictit siero garebusi siepi dⅠpogai cwgab.
The storm broke many houses.
The Past Continuous
There is no special suffix or combination of suffixes in order to indicate that an action in the past was an ongoing affair. Instead, it is necessary to employ a dummy Genitive I pronoun and the postposition
GⅠbusi epśe seca ßw siepduibgai.
The children were waking up.
Recall that in order to make big adjectives continuous, it is necessary to dynamicise them. This is just as true if they describe qualities that were present at some point in the past:
DⅠdu bibⅠubu ero pasgai
He was being strong (at the time).
The Irrealis Forms
A series of
ⅡipcecwⅢou eśⅠ dietigdu -- bou cotui casab!
Jabbering is useless -- let's fight!
A verb can be negated in two ways:
Pśiu potaiⅡbu cuicu got to.
I don't want this beer.
Bou gierbu Ⅲugtuit!
We are not waiting for you lot!
Yes/no questions can be formed from statements by adding the suffix
Pipu dieśidtuiⅠ gaib?
Are you always afraid?
Pipu apadwgußbu pśica epśe cwⅡactuig!
Lick my ballsack!
The imperative of
Pipu ßierⅠubbu ero puißca eⅢai dⅠdⅠo taibwdtuig to!
Don't make the dog bite him
Reduplicating the suffix to produce
Dodieśusi epśe bou soptai epi rⅠcwrtuitui śo poguis.
The wise men believe we will be living in the moon.
To make it perfective, then
RapśiⅢu edai pipⅠo sipdutuitui.
An angel will come to you.
The sense of the previous sentence is not quite
RapśiⅢu edai pipⅠo sipdutuitui Ⅱwsab.
Every angel will (surely) come to you.
Nominative and Accusative
Genitives I, II and III
The dative is used to denote directions.
Quantity markers are a further sophistication of noun role in a sentence, and are added after the case suffix. There are four forms: the
The absence of a noun:
Pogdicuc capśirśutai epi gißgiß.
There is no blood in the corpse.
Pogdicu capśirśutaic epi gißgiß.
The blood is not in the body (i.e. it has bled out)
The negative of a participleTODO
You must not drink this beer.
The equivalent of the English modifier 'the ... only'
You were the only man who cried.
With a plural postnoun, "all..."
All the men cried.
Something done, put, or offered in exchange for, some one other object [grammatically, but not necessarily physically unified]. In this case, the two objects are put in the unitive quantity, with varying case strategies, e.g.:
Pipu śesuśibaⅠot edai gipastuiⅠ?
Suppose you pretend to be a goddess?
Pśiu pipbu ⅡiesⅠubⅠot ⅡiesⅠubⅠot cogai.
I fought you blow-for-blow.
Pśiu baitbut cuicu gⅠgogtuiⅠ?
What would you give for these eggs? lit. I show you these eggs for?
TODO: effect of using different verbs in this construct
as with e.g. buying and selling
"Some of x" constructions:
There are two main ways to form plurals in Shapshiruckish, and the quantity marker
PśeⅡusi siepśe picai.
Some women are working.
also carries the meaning
Note that all plural/totative nouns have plural number, and never dual.
The Little Adjectives
The following are all the little adjectives which can be reliably reconstructed. 24 of them form dichotomous pairs:
and four unpaired little adjectives:
The colour adjectives are similar:
As are the five question adjectives:
Little adjectives modify nouns by cliticising onto the end of the postnoun, or pronoun:
the big cow
the bad one
we bad ones
Usage of Multiple Little Adjectives
Only one little adjective can be cliticised at once, and so the following is not a valid utterance:
*the bigbad cow
torosu dⅠdu-Ⅲos Ⅰußer eⅢai-cwg
the big, bad cow
Which particular little adjective is primary is largely a matter of style, but colour adjectives are primary over little adjectives, but not necessarily ordinal numbers:
Bou Ⅰupbasi seu-guip Ⅰußer sieⅢai-caidßus Ⅱegdutuit.
We don't eat the little green roots.
Nominal Usage of Colour Adjectives
Colour adjectives can, however, also be used as nouns:
Pipu saicisbusi siepśe reśtuig!
Kill the black people!
Colour adjectives being used as nouns have, as one might expect, no fixed class, and are assigned an
Pipu saicisbusi sieⅢai reśtuig!
Kill the black beasts!
The various transformations involved with little adjectives are also used to form wh-type questions. Suppose:
Tetetu epśe baitbu ecu gipuigai.
The monkey stole the egg.
Then by using the
Ⅲeu-paß baitbu ecu gipuigai?
Who stole the egg?
ẞwßpau eⅢai-paß baitbu ecu gipuigai?
Which varmint stole the egg?
Note that question adjectives are always primary:
ẞwßpau dⅠdu-Ⅲos Ⅰußer eⅢai-paß baitbu ecu gipuigai?
Which wicked varmint stole the egg?
The exception to the use of the question adjective is for 'what' questions. There is no question adjective corresponding to it, and so the use of a bare interrogative dummy pronoun and coordinator is needed.
Tetetu epśe (Ⅰicßiebu ecu) Ⅲebu (Ⅰußer) gipuigai?
What (food) did the monkey steal?
Complications of Postnouns
The postnominal system is one of the most cumbersome parts of Shapshiruckish.
Modal VerbsTODO: modal verbs cannot be negated -- use nullative participle
The Genitive I and Genitive II cases can be used respectively, along with locativisation of a secondary noun, to denote that the referent of a noun is habitually of or f rom the secondary noun:
Cocucwsu pigasigca epi dociśba.
The warrior from the river is drunk.
or that the referent is presently, or within the relevant timeframe, in or at the secondary noun:
Cocucwsu pigasigtai epi dociśba.
The warrior is drunk in the river.
ComparativesTODO: shapshiruckise and generalise milk-AUG IN milk-PEJ OUT find-1P-GNOM for 'real milk is better than fake milk'
PśeⅡu bwśer bwpśe picai.
Two women (lit. a woman and a woman) are working.
and the plural:
PśeⅡu tacas siepśe picai.
Nine women are working.
Coordinating Pluralisation is more 'stylish', since more effects can be achieved by using it:
PśeⅡu pśwraśu bwśer siepśe picai.
The woman and the man are working.
Notice that the postnoun is marking a plural, not a dual. When two different nouns are coordinated together in this way, the dual is only used in a few circumstances:
Pśwraśu sogu bwpśe Ⅱo.
The man and the girl are fucking.
Suisu baitdau bwśer bwⅢai uⅡiepuiśu eso.
The bird is taken from the nest (lit. The bird and the nest are being separated).
This example also illustrates the principle that when two nouns of differing classes are coordinated in this way, the postnoun used after the coordination marks the class of highest animacy -- typically the lowest number.
More than two nouns can be coordinated at once:
Pśwraśu śedretu puißu daiśer siepśe dieß.
The man, the horse and the dog are thirsty.
Different branches of the family have their own, special, affixes commonly found applied to roots. Those mentioned in this grammar are those which can be commonly found in multiple branches. For more specific forms, which may date to the time of Shapshirucksh, see the respective proto-language grammars.
Nominal Derivative Morphology
There are very few compound nouns in Shapshiruckish.
There are some cases of reduplication. It is not very productive.
Ⅱad- beyond god place> Ⅱadgod outside sedwp joy> Ⅱadsedwp desperation bog value, worth> Ⅱadbog waste
gic- augmentative rⅠg master> gicrⅠg king sesti tooth> gicsesti canine tooth Ⅱu mouse> gicⅡu rat
apa- be like dabib boy> apadabib fool pur bark> apapur rind tit cloud> apatit wool
śap- benefactive sog girl> śapsog sweetheart Ⅱuiri field> śapⅡuiri graveyard gwt leaf> śapgwt oak
tieś- lacking śeß soul, spirit> tieśeß bad feelings śo eye> tieśo rage dapoś father> tieśdapoś bastard
twg- malefactive bog value, worth> twgbog shame ßwßpa leg> twgßwßpa pest duir lack> twgduir fault, sin
die- before Ⅰubaid night> dieⅠubaid evening > >
ri- having Ⅰad seed> riⅠad plant pud end> ripud edge sedwp joy> risedwp happiness
Ⅱip- together gobic > Ⅱipgobic agreement Ⅰaic join (vb)> ⅡipⅠaic cross cat arm> Ⅱipcat team
cieś- concerning taß sun> cieśtaß hour, moment of time > >
do- personified rod ear> dorod spy cißit mouth> docißit representative, interpreter toro bend> dotoro kidney
Usually seen along the nominaliser
cieśtaß hour, moment of time> cieśtaßⅢo time, temporality Ⅲerßwß branch> ⅢerßwßⅢo bifurcation pir to hurt> pircwⅢo
-cu and -rwt augmentative > > >
-ciep and -piß diminutive > > >
-ba feminine śesuśi god> śesuśiba goddess cuirsa udder> cuirsaba nipple puißcu wolf> puißcuba she-wolf
-doga made from Ⅰodo barley> Ⅰodoga beer dieś wisdom> dieśdoga rule, regulation sop moon> sopdoga month
-da about dotoro kidney> dotoroda suet bait egg> baitda nest sog girl> sogda decoration
-śu within which pirsut wall (of dwelling)> pirsutśu garden cⅠrśag sky> cⅠrśagśu weather god place> godśu inside
Noun Classes and Derivation
Five of the noun classes are open, meaning that nouns created through the nominalisation of verbs, and nouns derived through various processes belong to them:
Class IV: Dynamicisation
A verb can be dynamicised by adding the suffix
ⅡipßutwⅠubu ero gipuiⅠubbu ero docißdu.
The dancer loves the thief.
However, sometimes the result is 'action caused by Xing'. This is lexical, with some verbs taking one form or the other, or both.
Class VI: Locativisation
No special suffixes are necessary to locativise a noun -- it is simply moved to Class VI. Genitive constructions (
Pigasigu ero dⅠdca picaicwsu epi.
The river is his workplace.
Class VII: Instrumentalisation
As with locativisation, no special prefixes are needed to instrumentalise a noun -- just reassignment to class VII. Verbs are first patientised by adding the prefix
Existentialphrases, i.e. those of the form "There is x"
pat-be.usual -age-nom-nul ivthis
There is no custom.
Obligatorily as the passives of certain verbs:
Alternative passive forms of certain verbs:
The shifts of meaning that the passive-aggressive alternatives undergo carries through to their general use in the other constructions. There is also heavy use of the following opaque suppletive passive-aggressive forms of some common verbs, obligatory with the modals:
Do it! You can do it! I believe in you!
and also the following paraphrase of
You can do what you want, but you cannot want what you want.
Class IX: Passivisation
The usual passive construction in Shapshiruckish is to a) turn the action into a patientised noun by adding the prefix
Dut-Colu dwbabbu eⅢai ⅡoⅡaibgai.
Dut-Col threw the apple.M
Dwbabu eⅢai Dut-Coltai uⅡoⅡaibu eso ratipgai.
The apple was thrown by Dut-Col (lit.: The apple was a throw of Dut-Col's).
or alternatively, with promotion of the new patient:
UⅡoⅡaibu eso Dut-Coltai dwbabu eⅢai ratipgai.
lit.: Dut-Col's throw was an apple.
Intransitive constructions go from:
ẞetßiecu eⅢai ßier.
The wolf is biting.
Ußieru eso ßetßiectai eⅢai cau.
That is the biting of a wolf.
Class VIII: Abstraction
Many Shapshiruckish abstractions are formed by this process. Nouns have
BotcwⅢou cuiśⅠ dieś.
This decision is wise.
Pirsutśu eⅡw suicairßieca sieⅡw ⅢerßwßⅢoca eśⅠ
The garden of bifurcating paths
Discourse, Set Phrases and Fixed Expressions
Quantity Markers in Discourse
Generally, nouns are not marked for quantity, unless the 'main function' of the quantity marker is clearly intended -- the absence of a noun for the nullative, "the only..." for the unitive or "some" for the partitive -- or it is plural, or it is used in some larger syntactic structure, e.g. the Single Dative Unitive.
The three consonantal quantity-markers (
The particular qualities suggested by the three markers are:
Discourse Nullativemarks the mere allegation, disowning, questioning the status or general rubbishing of a noun:
Pśiu dapośⅠoc epśe dⅠdu pußtui śo rośgai.
1s-nomfather- dat-nul is 3s-nombe.silent- irr relsay- past
V: I told my (so-called) father-NUL to shut up...
Discourse Unitivemarks a noun for definiteness. It is not possible to mark, as in English, a noun as being consistently definite through a discourse; what is significant is that at some point in the discourse, the noun gains or loses definiteness. If a noun begins a discourse in the unitive quantity, and it is not obviously some other meaning of the unitive, it is likely that at some point the noun will be, or may potentially be demoted, or lost, or in some way made less definite. Thus:
V: This boy, what do you think?
R: Him? Send him out with the others. The boy-UNIT will fail like the rest.
Discourse Partitiveis a sort of marked indefiniteness, neutrality or irrelevance with respect to the main topic of conversation. The topic cannot be marked with the discourse partitive, only things held in comparison to it. It is relatively rare.
In earlier forms, where the plural is more accurately called the totative, an equivalent of this pattern -- the
Discourse Totativeis found when a noun acquires or loses totality or completion, regardless of whether it is 'singular' or 'plural' in number:
V: Who is here? Is your husband here?
P: Yes, he-TOT is here.
V: Good. I want to see him-TOT
However, in late Shapshiruckish, it is mandatory to mark all plural nouns with the totative/plural, and not to mark singular nouns. The old behaviour can still be seen in certain contexts, such as the boasting chant below:TODO
He had a nose-TOT, but I cut it off. Now he has no nose, hahaha!
R: You should not speak of your father that way!
V: My father-NUL can go fuck himself!
V: You are right, the (poor) boy-UNIT will die.
V: So, tonight we can eat mutton, chicken, and there is corn with it...
R: How is the corn cooked?
V: It is (just) roasted corn-PART, but the chicken is with very hot peppers
R: Chicken with corn-PART, that will be very tasty...
The Shapgapsh, as they are, are in an awkward position, societally. They are in the process of becoming large-scale societies, and pretty successfully at that, but naturally some tribal customs remain in some form or another. One of the most distinctively Shapgapsh customs, with echoes in all their descendant races, is the system of age-sets or
Those who were
The system for females was slightly different. Uninitiated girls and initiated women were not graded by age, even in the provisional male sense, but when they became sexually mature, at menarche, they permanently acquired membership in the female counterpart of the
Union with a
Union with a
The system was rather more elaborate than this, as each
Where there are contradictions between the grammar of these translations, and of the rules explicated in the main section of the grammar, the latter take precedence.
Jdgapśaca badiśu "BaberⅡe" ( The Jewish Tale of Babel)
A well-known story.
Gapśaut ero śirrucwbut Ⅰußer epśe rośgai Ⅰacib.
Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
Gapśaut ero dietaßdogaⅠo ero gopicgai ⅡⅠ dⅠdut duⅢbwrscwsbu epi Śidarca epi botgai tid dⅠdut cuitai-capś pśiⅠidbu gaidirgai.
As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.
DⅠdut dⅠdⅠot cabu rośgai: "Pśiut reⅡedibusi edai dirtui casab ⅡⅠ pśiut sebu raruśtui casab śaiśab." DⅠdut reⅡedibusi tapdogataic epi bidgai, tid dⅠdut ceibarⅡe edi sebu usodⅡe edi sadgai.
3S-NOM-UNIT 3S-DAT-UNIT this-ACC say-PAST | 1S-NOM-UNIT “brick”-ACC-PL XP make-IRR now so 1S-NOM-UNIT 3P-ACC cook-IRR good-ADVBLS || 3S-NOM-UNIT 'brick'-ACC-PL building.stone-GENII-NUL VIS use-PAST and 3S-NOM-UNIT 'bitumen'-GENIII VIIS 3P-ACC PAT-be.sticky-GENIII VIIS make.like.PAST
They said to each other, 'Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.' They used brick instead of stone, and bitumen for mortar.
3S-NOM-UNIT this-ACC say-PAST still | 3S-NOM-UNIT settlement-ACC VS=big and house-ACC VS=tall build-IRR now | sky-GENI VIS top-NOM VIS VICOP-IRR-FUT |so 1S-NOM-UNIT signify-IRR-FUT certainly | way-NOM XS=other this-ACC XCOP | PAT-separate-NOM VIIS world-GENII VIS=all 1S-NOM-UNIT VIICOP-IRR-FUT certainly
Then they said, 'Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves; otherwise we will be scattered over the face of the whole earth.'
JaⅠⅡeⅠu duⅢtipgai ⅡⅠ seu pśiⅠidⅠo garebⅠo eⅡw bwśer uporesⅡe edi Ⅰocgai.
Yahweh-NOM go.down-PAST so 3P-NOM settlement-DAT house-DAT VS two;CO PAT-spy-GENIII VIIS be.able-PAST
But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower the people were building.
JaⅠⅡeⅠu cabu rośgai: "Gapśaut ero śirrucwbut Ⅰußer epśe śo cuidaibu udirⅡe edi Ⅰocdu. Bou dieśid ⅡⅠ tid [--------]
Yahweh-NOM this-ACC say-PAST | folk-NOM-UNIT IVS language-ACC-UNIT one IS speak-PERF REL THISX-ACC PAT-make-GENIII VIIS can-PERF | 1P-NOM be.afraid because [..........]
The Lord said, ‘If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
Bou duⅢtiptui casab tid dⅠdcat śirrucwsbu epśe Ⅱiepuiśtui casab ⅡⅠ gapśau cuiⅡw gapśabu caⅡw Ⅲugtuitui to.
1P-NOM go.down-IRR now and 3S-GEN1-UNIT language-ACC IS separate-IRR now so folk-NOM VTHIS folk-ACC VTHAT understand-IRR-FUT NEG
Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.’
so Yahweh-NOM 3P-NOM that-GENI=where separate-PAST | folk-NOM-PL IVP settlement-ACC VS PAT-build-GENIII VIIS can-PAST no.longer because 3P-NOM be.alone-PAST
So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city.
name-NOM VIIITHIS=where 'Babel' VIIICOP because Jew-NOM-PL 'Babel' IVS say-PERF if 3P-NOM 'confuse-NMLS-ABS-NOM' PAT-say-GENIII VIIS wish-PERF | and Babel-GENII VIS language-GENII-PL people-GENII-PL two;CO IPL confuse-NMLS-ABS-NOM VIS IXCOP-PAST
That is why it was called Babel – because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
La Peine (Misery)
A line from
Twgpiesu pśeⅡbu dⅠdbu Ⅰußer cuipśe-paß guißtid pśwp ⅡaⅡe tid pśiu pipu bwśer bwpśe riⅡais.
Misery is like some horrible woman you've married.
C'est comme une femme qui serait affreuse la Peine, et qu’on aurait épousée.
Maybe it's better to end up loving her a little than to knock yourself out beating her all your life.
Peut-être est-ce mieux encore de finir par l’aimer un peu que de s’épuiser à la battre pendant la vie entière.
ⅡⅠ tid cuitu tieb. dⅠdu pipⅡ upogsiepśⅠbu eso pastuitui gaib to.
Since obviously you won't be able to bump her off.
Puisque c’est entendu qu’on ne peut pas l’estourbir ?
From a song of
Taßdogau cuiro śapuresu eso
This day is seen well [O what a day]
Pśiu pśiu rocußtui śo poguisai!
I believed that I would die! [I thought I'd die!]
ẞwßpau cuipśe sieptub
This leg is delicious! [That luscious thigh!]
BwⅡu capśe siepgiß
That breast is becoming heavy! [Those swelling breasts!]
Paraisou edai daridtai epi dogaicat
The sacrifice is smelling (sweetly) in grease! [Scented and greased -- a sacrifice!]
Ragdogau ero pśica tattaisi epi Ⅱoß rob.
Meat juice is flowing under my fingers. [Running with juice at my caress.]
DⅠdu-bir: Pśiu... to.
She soft: I... not. [She was so hot I was hard put...]
I am speaking politely. [To be polite]
Scoring of the hide... [When the first cut...]
Dorotsegu ecu pogcetui!
Yield, whore! [Come on, you slut!]
PodeⅡⅠubu suipca eⅡw-di dⅠdca ero-Ⅲuśpot pśwp
At the first scoring of her red hide... [When the first cut scored her brown skin]
I began... [I started in...]
pśwraśu epśe ricwcwsbatai eⅢai da
Man over hen! [Man upon hen!]
In dulci jubilo
The first verse of the macaronic Christmas carol In dulci jubilo. It both scans and rhymes! Latin is a concise language, and Shapshiruckish is not, but since there are only three and a half Shapshiruckish lines in an eight line verse, it is not so difficult:
In dulci jubilo!
pogdeⅡtuig gaib to!
sedwpu ero pśica,
taßu ero gaiciśba
Matris in gremio!
Alpha es et O!
Alpha es et O!
lay in manger-
I rejoice in sweetness
Lies in the manger
The sun is shining
In a mother's arms
You are Alpha and Omega
You are Alpha and Omega
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